عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Many people die around the world, especially in developing world, in traffic events and crashes, which is one of driving deviations' consequences, so that about 1.2 people die and more than 50 million people injured, annually. About 90 percentages of this statistics contribute to low or medium income countries and it estimate that this rate will be increased during 2000 to 2020 years about 65 percentages in the world and 80 percentages in low or medium income countries (Ekhteyari and Shams, 2009). Mortality of deriving crashes in Iran is 15 times more than developed countries and more prevalent factor influencing it is human agency (Soori et. Al., 2009, Mirfardi et. Al., 2013), so that human factors is about in 90 to 95 percentages of driving accidents, the human factor has been fault, solely or commonly with other factors (Yaaghouubi, 2000).The road accidents in Iran is 20 times more than world average and 2.5 percentages of world road accidents are happened in Iran while Iran has just 1 percentage of world population (Mirfardi et al, 2013). Driving deviation, besides leading to urban disordering, already had harmful financial and life dimension consequences for different societies, especially for Iran society, and caused traffic insecurity. The present study examined the relationship between moral intelligence and traffic awareness with traffic violations of drivers in Yasouj.
Material & Methods: Using survey method and questionnaire technique, this study has been done. The statistical society, were all 18 -60 years old citizens of Yasouj with a driver's license and driving their own vehicles during 2 months before collecting data of this study. Sample size were estimated by Morgan sampling table (1970) regarding significant level (0.95), statistical society size include all 18 -60 years old citizens of Yasouj with a driver's license and driving their own vehicles during 2 months before collecting data of this study (about 8000 persons), from which about 367 persons were estimated as sample size. Using multi-stage random sampling method, a total of 367 people were selected. A questionnaire designed by the researchers and the content validity used for validity evaluation, and internal consistency and reliability was determined via the Kuder and Richardson method. Data were collected based on multi-stage random sampling method in the areas of Salem Abad, Rahnamaiee, Terminal, Mahmood Abad, Eram, Shahed, Golestan, Keshavarzi, Moalem, Shohada, Zirtol, Bensenjan, DolatAbad, SharafAbad, Emamat) which are representative areas of Yasouj city, socio-economically.
Discussion of Results & Conclusions: Descriptive results of the study indicated that there is a high rate of traffic violations among drivers so that about 94.8 percentages of drivers in Yasouj, during the two months before collecting data have been committed to driving violations. As Yasouj city has been experienced a large amount of population increase during the past three decades and has been transformed from traditional communities to a semi-modern and semi- traditional community, this finding is consistency with Agburn's theory about cultural lag in transformation of societies. Analytical results of research showed significant indirect relationship between moral intelligence and traffic awareness with traffic violations. The mentioned dominant variables determine about 18 percentages of the variances changes in dependent variable (traffic violations). Findings of this study showed significant indirect relationship betweenmoral intelligence and traffic awareness with traffic violations. This finding is compatible with the result of study of Avaz & Meyghat (2010) and the result of study of Ferasat & sadeghi (2011) which all of them showed that traffic awareness has significant relationship with driving performance and violation. As theoretical framework indicates, this situation is one of indicators of communities with cultural lag traits. Yasouj city has been experienced increasing growth during past decades in land size and population size, and as well the numbers of automobiles have been increases, consequently; while the driving styles and methods among considerable numbers of drivers in Yasouj is not compatible with driving and traffic rules. This situation has been created a kind of discoordination in quantity and quality of material and cultural changes, and, as a result, has created traffic violations in this city. By other words, increasing in traffic awareness is lead to less driving violations; while traffic awareness of Yasouj city drivers has not been formed regarding the extension of transportation vehicles in this city and has not been increases to ideal level. The average level of traffic awareness among Yasouj city drivers has been less than expected average amount or even in the low level. Results showed that increasing in moral intelligence of drivers is lead to less driving violations. In the other words, knowledge of people about their environment and life world and its behavioral regularities, will be effective in optimizing of individual and social behaviors if it be with a kind of moral commitment. Individual and knowledge, beside of its morality existence, may lead to behavioral disasters, in spite of improvement for own person and others. Moral commitment and moral intelligence caused to prevention of deviances and errors. Driving, as a behavior, which may lead to dangerous behaviors, need to applying moral intelligence by drivers for having and keeping more security feeling for drivers, passengers and passers. The moral intelligence reduce need to police for regularizing the behaviors of drivers and commitment with individual creativity become efficient in making healthy and secure driving.