عنوان مقاله [English]
Cigarette smoking recognized harmful for human health for decades biologically and psychologically and studied in different disciplines. According to "World Health Organization" report, cigarette introduced as addictive and Addiction to nicotine is as addictive and dangerous as heroin and dependence on it is progressive. Although smoking is known as a substance harmful to human health, this risky behavior increasingly raised specially among youth around world. The prevalence of smoking, especially smoking among students, as the educated class of society that can affect all segments of society. Many studies on the prevalence and risk factors of smoking among students was conducted. Most of these studies was quantitative and showed increasing the prevalence of smoking in universities. The aim of this study that done in qualitative approach, was to explore the meaning and facilitator motives and contexts for cigarette smoking among university students.
Material & Methods
Considering cigarette smoking as a meaningful social action, can be captured better in an interpretative and qualitative approach. Accordingly, present study used qualitative research. Qualitative research, versus quantitative one, the researcher merge in field and usually don’t use statistical methods for data analysis. Grounded theory strategy used as research design and data analysis. Research data collected by semi-structured interview that begins by the approach employed to achieve concepts and categories interview was informal dialogue. After the initial concepts were revealed, Using the general interview guide approach, elements and concepts in the interview process were followed. Research field was at Yazd University male dormitories. Participants sample included 38 male students that selected by purposeful sampling method and theoretical sampling is performed compatible with the nature of the underlying theory.Data gathered with semi-structured interview and analyzed by theoretical coding method in three stages including open, selective and axial coding.
Discussion of Results & Conclusions
In line by line analysis of data by open coding, 81 initial concept emerged and then linked together into 24 categories and sub-categories by selective coding. In this phase, main categories and a core Category emerged from Data include Family problems, Smoking as symbol of grief and protest, First semester, term hazard, Friends norm and pressure for conformity, dormitory conditions, and Marginalization of schooling. Experience and representation of smoking selected as core category. According to findings, cigarette smoking has multiple meaning and affecting factors among students. This meaningful action is a process that started before university entrance. Most of research participants started smoking in peer groups or families. They spoke about family bad sphere and family motivating as a main cause of tendency to smoking. Among different family conditions, family poverty, addicted or aggressive parents are two main ones. Some of participants interpreted smoking as a reaction to their family and social conditions or an instrument for social representation. They learned from their parents or close friends that manage their problems in risky ways. In this issue, adolescence experiences was crucial. In university stage, coming far away from family was reduced Family control and accelerated smoking action. Living in dormitory in close to smoker persons, available a situation that students experienced normative pressure for smoking with their roommates. These all conditions are more crucial for first semester that students were far away family and experienced relative autonomy in social relations. Learning from new friends in dormitory and sense of freedom from family and community control move students to smoking as an instrument for adopting with new conditions. Some other Themes such as leisure time and sign for protest and grief was important. Participant lack of meaningful leisure time play important role in smoking. Some students used cigarette for decreasing negative emotions. If they attain to a meaningful leisure, they manage their time better. Finally research main categories interconnected with a paradigm model and relations discussed.